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點擊:  作者:記者    來源:戰略家書苑  發布時間:2019-12-17 10:30:35



Washington, DC –  The United States and China have reached an historic and enforceable agreement on a Phase One trade deal that requires structural reforms and other changes to China’s economic and trade regime in theareas of intellectual property, technology transfer, agriculture, financial services, and currency and foreign exchange. The Phase One agreement also includes a commitment by China that it will make substantial additional purchases of U.S. goods and services in the comingyears.  Importantly, the agreement establishes a strong dispute resolution system that ensures prompt and effective implementation and enforcement. The United States has agreed to modify its Section 301 tariff actions in a significant way. 

美國和中國就第一階段貿易協議達成了一項具有歷史意義和可執行的協議,該協議要求在知識產權、技術轉讓、農業、金融服務、貨幣和外匯等領域對中國的經濟和貿易體制進行結構性改革和其他改變。 第一階段協議還包括: 中國承諾在未來幾年內增加購買大量美國商品和服務。 更為重要的是,該協議建立了強有力的爭端解決機制,以確保迅速和有效地實施和執行。 美國已同意大幅修改其根據301法案制定的關稅。

“President Trump has focused on concluding a Phase One agreement that achieves meaningful, fully-enforceable structural changes and begins rebalancing the U.S.-China trade relationship.  This unprecedented agreement accomplishes those very significant goals and would not have been possible without the President’s strong leadership,” said United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer.

貿易代表萊特希澤說:特朗普總統致力于達成第一階段的協議,實現有意義的、完全可執行的結構性轉變,并開始重新平衡美-中貿易關系。 這項史無前例的協議實現了這些非常重要的目標,如果沒有特朗普總統的強有力的領導,這是不可能的。

“Today’s announcement of a Phase One agreement with China is another significant step forward in advancing President Trump’s economic agenda.  Thanks to the President’s leadership, this landmark agreement marks critical progress toward a more balanced trade relationship and a more level playing field for American workers and companies,” said Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin.

財政部長姆欽說:今天宣布的與中國達成的第一階段協議是推進特朗普總統經濟議程的又一重要步驟。 在總統的領導下,這一具有程碑式的協議標志著(我們)朝著更平衡的貿易關系和為美國工人和公司提供更公平的競爭環境的關鍵進展。 

 The United States first imposed tariffs on imports from China based on the findings of the Section 301 investigation on China’s acts, policies, and practices related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation. The United States will be maintaining 25 percent tariffs on approximately $250 billion of Chinese imports, along with 7.5 percent tariffson approximately $120 billion of Chinese imports.

美國首次對來自中國的進口產品征收關稅,是基于對中國在技術轉讓、知識產權和創新方面的行為、政策和做法進行的301調查的結果。 美國將對大約2500億美元的中國進口商品維持25%的關稅,對大約1200億美元的中國進口商品維持7.5%的關稅。


Intellectual Property: The Intellectual Property (IP) chapter addresses numerous longstanding concerns in the areas of trade secrets, pharmaceutical-related intellectual property, geographical indications, trademarks, and enforcement against pirated and counterfeit goods. 


2. Technology Transfer: The Technology Transfer chapter sets out binding and enforceable obligations to addressseveral of the unfair technology transfer practices of China that were identified in USTR’s Section 301 investigation. For the first time in any trade agreement, China has agreed to end its long-standing practice of forcing orpressuring foreign companies to transfer their technology to Chinese companiesas a condition for obtaining market access, administrative approvals, orreceiving advantages from the government. China also commits to provide transparency, fairness, and due process in administrative proceedings and to have technology transfer and licensing take place on market terms. Separately, China further commits to refrain from directing or supporting outboundinvestments aimed at acquiring foreign technology pursuant to industrial plansthat create distortion. 

技術轉讓:技術轉讓章節規定了有約束力和可執行的義務,以應對美國貿易代表辦公室301調查中發現的中國的若干不公平的技術轉讓行為。 在所有貿易協定中,中國首次同意結束長期以來強迫或施壓外國公司向中國公司轉讓技術并以此作為獲得市場準入、行政審批或獲得政府優勢的條件的做法。 中國還承諾在行政訴訟中提供透明、公平和正當程序,并在市場法則下進行技術轉讓和許可。 此外,中國還承諾不根據造成扭曲的產業計劃,指導或支持旨在獲取外國技術的對外投資。


 3. Agriculture: The Agriculture Chapter addresses structural barriers to trade and will support a dramatic expansion of U.S. food, agriculture and seafood product exports, increasing American farmand fishery income, generating more rural economic activity, and promoting job growth. A multitude of non-tariff barriers to U.S. agriculture and seafood products are addressed, including for meat, poultry, seafood, rice, dairy, infant formula, horticultural products, animal feed and feed additives, petfood, and products of agriculture biotechnology. 

農業:農業章節涉及貿易的結構性壁壘,并將支持美國食品、農業和海產品出口的大幅擴大,增加美國農業和漁業收入,創造更多的農村經濟活動,促進就業增長。 針對美國農業和海鮮產品的眾多非關稅壁壘將得到解決,包括肉類、家禽、海鮮、大米、奶制品、嬰兒配方奶粉、園藝產品、動物飼料和飼料添加劑、寵物食品以及農業生物技術產品。 

4. Financial Services: The Financial Services chapter addresses a number of longstanding trade and investment barriers to U.S. providers of a wide range of financial services, including banking, insurance, securities, and credit rating services, among others. These barriers include foreign equity limitations and discriminatory regulatory requirements. Removal of these barriers should allow U.S. financial service providers to compete on a more level playing field and expand their services export offerings in the Chinese market. 

金融服務:金融服務章節處理美國金融服務提供商長期存在的貿易和投資壁壘,包括銀行、保險、證券和信用評級等服務,包括: 外國股本限制和歧視性監管要求。 消除這些障礙將使美國金融服務提供商能夠在更公平的競爭環境中競爭,并擴大它們在中國市場的服務出口產品。 

5. Currency: The chapter on Macroeconomic Policies and Exchange Rate Matters includes policy and transparency commitments on currency issues. The chapter addresses unfair currency practices by requiring high-standard commitments to refrain from competitive devaluations and targeting of exchange rates, while significantly increasing transparency and providing mechanisms for accountability and enforcement. This approach will help reinforce macroeconomic and exchange rate stability and ensure that China cannot use currency practices to unfairly compete against U.S. exporters. 

貨幣:關于宏觀經濟政策和匯率事項的章節包括有關貨幣問題的政策和透明度承諾。 這一章針對(中國)不公平的匯率做法,要求作出高標準的承諾,避免競爭性貶值和(設置)匯率目標,同時顯著提高透明度,并提供問責和執行機制。 這種做法將有助于加強宏觀經濟和匯率穩定,并確保中國不會利用匯率手段不公平地與美國出口商競爭。 

6. Expanding Trade: The Expanding Trade chapter includes commitments from China toimport various U.S. goods and services over the next two years in a total amount that exceeds China’s annual level of imports for those goods and services in 2017 by no less than $200 billion. China’s commitments cover a variety of U.S. manufactured goods, food, agricultural and seafood products, energy products, and services. China’s increased imports of U.S. goods and services are expected to continue on this same trajectory for several years after 2021 and should contribute significantly to the rebalancing of the U.S.-China trade relationship.

 擴大貿易:本章的內容包括: 中國承諾在未來兩年內進口美國各種商品和服務,總額在中國2017年對這些商品和服務的年度進口額的基礎上增加不低于2000億美元。 中國的承諾包括美國制造的各種產品、食品、農產品和海產品、能源產品和服務。 中國對美國商品和服務進口的增加預計將在2021年后的幾年里繼續保持這一趨勢,并將對美中貿易關系的再平衡做出重大貢獻。

7. Dispute Resolution: The Dispute Resolution chapter sets forth an arrangement to ensure the effective implementation of the agreement and to allow the parties to resolve disputes in a fair and expeditious manner. This arrangement creates regular bilateral consultations at both the principal level and the workinglevel. It also establishes strong procedures for addressing disputes related to the agreement and allows each party to take proportionate responsive actions that it deems appropriate. 

爭端解決:本章做了一些安排,以確保本協定得到有效執行,并允許各方以公平和快速的方式解決爭端。 這一安排在領導層級別和執行層面建立了定期雙邊磋商機制。 它還為處理與協議有關的爭端建立了強有力的程序,并允許每一當事方采取它認為適當的相應行動。






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